Everyone knows the importance of technological development in the world, including air transport in all regions of life and it’s effective on social activity and economic, making the aircraft compete with other types of transportation by providing many services to passengers and goods as well as emergency patients. Helicopters one of the air transportation that take place in this field.
In large cities, a heliport can serve people needing to a quickly move within the city or to outlying regions. Generally heliports can be situated closer to a town or city centre. The advantage in flying by helicopter to a destination is that travel can be much faster than driving.
Helipads are important for air ambulance by accepting and taking care of patients from remote areas without local hospitals or facilities
A heliport is a small airport suitable only for use by helicopters. Heliports typically contain one or more helipads and may have limited facilities such as fuel, lighting, a windsock, or even hangars. In larger towns and cities, customs facilities may be available at a heliport.
The early advocates of helicopters hoped that heliports would become widespread, but they have become contentious in urban areas due to the unpleasant noise caused by helicopter traffic.
Helicopter has proven to be useful in the following fields:
1. Disaster Relief :
Natural disasters often result in the breakdown of ground transport Systems. Helicopters are able both to bring in response teams and Supplies and to evacuate injured people during the critical period before ground transportation is restored.
2. Air Ambulance Services:
For an injured or critically ill person, time is life. Helicopters can provide high-speed, point-to-point transportation without being constrained by the limitations of the ground infrastructure.
3. Police Services :
Many municipalities consider their police services helicopters vital force multipliers in carrying out search and rescue,chase,and surveillance.
4. Moving High-Value Assets:
High-value or time-sensitive cargo because this transportation is very fast and flexible .Companies use helicopters as an invaluable part to connect the office with various job sites. Newspapers and Radio /TV stations use helicopters for onsite news gathering, taking photos, and airborne reporting of rush hour traffic conditions.
The most effective way for a community to realize the benefits of helicopter services is by developing or permitting the development of places where helicopters can land and take off .
While heliports can be large and elaborate, most are not. The basic elements of a heliport are clear approach / departure paths , a clear area for ground maneuvers, and a wind study .
The optimum location for a heliport is in close proximity to the desired origination and / or destination of the potential users.
Industrial, commercial, and business operations in urban locations are demand generators for helicopter services, even though they often compete for the limited ground space available. A site permitting the shared aeronautical and commercial usage at a viable alternative to non – aeronautical use alone.
Heliport sites may be adjacent to a river or a lake, a railroad, a freeway,or a highway, all of which offer the potential for multi – functional land usage. These locations also have the advantage of relatively unobstructed airspace ,which can be further protected from unwanted encroachment by properly enacted zoning.
The plan of heliports is very simple but must include the following main elements:
Helipad : the helicopter landing area ( H ) letter .
Hangar : the maintenance building for helicopter.
1. Helipad construction :
Helipads are usually constructed out of concrete and are marked with a circle and/or a letter “H”, so as to be visible from the air. However, they are not always constructed out of concrete; sometimes forest fire fighters will construct a temporary helipad out of wood to receive supplies in remote areas. Rig mats may be used to build helipads. Landing pads may also be constructed in extreme conditions such as on ice.
2. Hangar construction :
A hangar is a closed structure to hold aircraft or spacecraft in protective storage. Most hangars are built of metal, but other materials such as wood and concrete are also used.Hangars are used for protection from weather, protection from direct sunlight, maintenance, repair, manufacture, assembly and storage of aircraft on airfields aircraft carriers and ships.
Pavement of hangar floors must be designed to support aircraft loads ( rigid floor ) . Clearance must be provided between the aircraft and the door opening, walls and ceiling of the hangar .